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Biomechanics, Optics, Robotics and Imaging Research Group

The Biomechanics, Optics, Robotics and Imaging Research Group is a highly interdisciplinary group skilled in wide range of fields and applications. Group members have experience in industry, clinical services and academia, providing a breadth of expertise facilitating collective problem solving to all projects undertaken.

The collaborative nature of the group provides a vibrant, cultivating environment for the provision of undergraduate and postgraduate research projects. The team welcome inquiries about prospective projects, supervision and/or partnerships.

Video demonstrating computer-assisted gait analysis

Academic staff

* External

Read more about academic staff.

PhD students

  • Fabian Debowy and Lin Ye: supported by the MSC EU funded Doctoral Training Centre on Optics and Biomechanics of the Eye
  • Alex Bennett: Biomechanics of the walking gait rehabilitation technique

  • University of California Irvine, USA
  • University of Texas Arlington, USA
  • Osaka University, Japan
  • Beihang University, China
  • Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland
  • Antwerp University, Belgium
  • Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
  • University of Bern, Switzerland
  • Zaragoza University, Spain
  • University of Minho, Portugal
  • Cardiff University, UK
  • University of Greenwich, UK
  • Southampton Solent University, UK
  • Basildon and Thurrock University Hospitals (Mid and South Essex Trust)
  • Southend Hospital (Mid and South Essex Trust)
  • Springfield Hospital (private hospital)
  • Delsys Europe
  • School of History and Heritage, University of Lincoln
  • Cambridge Digital Health
Read more about list of key partnerships and collaborations.

  1. Optical and biomechanical properties of the eye
  2. Robotic eye surgery
  3. Mapping symptoms of steal syndrome in the hands of dialysis patients
  4. Biomechanical and physiological assessment of the diabetic foot
  5. Sight loss in giant cell arteritis
  6. Virtual reality for medical skills training supervised by artificial neural network
  7. Autonomous flight and real-time tracking of Nano unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
  8. Spinal pathology in ancient Nubia, malaria and climate change in ancient Nubia
  9. Neonatal apps


Wang, K., Qiu, Z., Xie, Y., Cai, S., Zhao, Y., Pierscionek, B.K., Guo, J. and Fan, Y. (2023) 'Design of an Automatically Controlled Multi-Axis Stretching Device for Mechanical Evaluations of the Anterior Eye Segment', Bioengineering, 10(2), pp. 142.


Sharif Abadi, A. S, Hameed, A., Ordys, A., Kukielka, K., Hosseinabadi, P. A., Pierscionek, B., 2022. A Novel Fixed-time Observer-based Sliding Mode Controller for Nonlinear Underactuated Hovercraft: Fixed-time Observer-based control of Hovercraft system. IEEE conference proceedings on Theoretical and Applied Computer Science and Engineering (ICTASCE), Ankara, Turkey, pp. 78-83.

Cheng C., Wang, K., Hoshino, M., Useugi, K., Yagi, N., Pierscionek, B. K., 2022. EphA2 affects development of the eye lens nucleus and the gradient of refractive index, Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 63(2). doi: 10.1167/iovs.63.1.2

Philip, N., Razaak, M., Chang, J., O'Kane, M., Pierscionek, B. K., 2022. A Data Analytics Suite for Exploratory Predictive, and Visual Analysis of Type 2 Diabetes. IEEE Access. ISSN 2169-3536

Wang, K., Hoshino, M., Useugi, K., Yagi, N., Pierscionek, B. K., Andley, U. P., 2022. Oxysterol compounds in mouse mutant αA- and αB-crystallin lenses can improve the optical properties of the lens. Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 63. doi: 10.1167/iovs.63.5.15

Sadeghi Esfahlani, S., Sanaei, A., Ghorabian, M., Shirvani, H., 2022. The Deep Convolutional Neural Network Role in the Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots (SROBO). Remote Sensing, 14(14), 3324.

Lindley, S., Robbins, D., Robinson, A., 2022. Assessment of Muscle Function. In: Chockalingam, N. (ed.), 2022. Technologies and Techniques in Gait Analysis: Past, present and future (Institution of Engineering & Technology, 1st edition), pp. 109-138.

Zhu, Y., Lu, W., Zhang, R., Wang, R., Robbins, D., 2022. Dual-channel cascade pose estimation network trained on infrared thermal image and groundtruth annotation for real-time gait measurement. Medical Image Analysis, 79, 102435.

Robbins, D., 2022. Muscle Biomechanics. In: Innocenti, B., Galbusera, F. (Eds.), 2022. Human Orthopaedic Biomechanics (Amsterdam: Elsevier).

Read more about 2022.


Wang, K., Vorontsova, I., Hoshino, M., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Hall, J. E., Schilling, T. F., Pierscionek, B. K., 2021. Aquaporins have regional functions in development of refractive index in the zebrafish eye lens. Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 62(3):23. doi: 10.1167/iovs.62.3.23

Jóźwik, A., Asejczyk-Widlicka, M., Kurzynowski, P., Pierscionek, B. K., 2021. How a dynamic optical system maintains image quality: self-adjustment of the human eye. Journal of Vision, 21(6). doi: 10.1167/jov.21.3.6

Esfahlani, S. S., Van-Paridon, K., Timmis, M., 2021. Development and evaluation of a virtual environment to assess cycling hazard perception skills. Sensors, 21(16), pp. 5499. ISSN 1424-8220.

Tipper, S., Shin, S., Kilroe, L., 2021. Current research in Nubian Archaeology: Oxford Edition (New Jersey: Gorgias Press).

Tipper, S., Lemos, R. (Eds.), 2021. New Perspectives on Sudanese and Nubian Archaeology (Cambridge: Archaeopress).

Lemos, R., Tipper, S., 2021. Sudanese and Nubian archaeology: scholarship past and present. In: Tipper, S., Lemos, R. (Eds.), 2021. New perspectives on Sudanese and Nubian Archaeology (Cambridge: Archaeopress).

Read more about 2021.


Wang, K., Hoshino, M., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Young, R. D., Frost, B. E., Regini, J.W., Quantock, A. J., Pierscionek, B. K., 2020. Cell compaction is not required for the development of gradient refractive index profiles in the embryonic chick lens. Exp. Eye Res.. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2020.108112

Jaimes-Nájera, A., Gómez-Correa, J. E., Coello, V., Pierscionek, B. K., Chávez-Cerda, S., 2020. Single function crystalline lens capable of mimicking ciliary body accommodation. Biomedical Optics Express 11, pp. 3699-3716. [selected for OPN Best in Optics 2020]

Wang, K., Vorontsova, I., Hoshino, M, Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Hall, J. E., Schilling, T. F., Pierscionek, B. K., 2020. Optical Development in the Zebrafish Eye Lens. FASEB. doi: 10.1096/fj.201902607R

Hawkey, A., Robbins, D., 2020. Effects of vibration on mechanical efficiency during cycling. Asian Exercise and Sport Science Journal, 4(2).

Read more about 2020.


Cheng, C., Parreno, J., Nowak, R. B., Biswas, S. K., Wang, K., Hoshino, M., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Moncaster, J. A., Lo, W-K., Pierscionek, B., Fowler, V. M., 2019. Age-related changes in eye lens biomechanics, morphology, refractive index and transparency. Aging, 11, pp. 12497-12531.

Wang, K., Venetsanos, D. T., Hoshino, M., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N. Pierscionek, B. K., 2019. A modelling approach for investigating opto-mechanical relationships in the human eye lens. Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2019.2927390

Wang, K., Hoshino, M., Uesugi, K., Yagi, N., Pierscionek, B. K., 2019. Contributions of shape and stiffness to accommodative loss in the ageing human lens: a finite element model assessment. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 36, B116-B122.

Asejczyk-Widlicka, M., Jóźwik, A., Kasprzak, H., Sobczak, M., Pierscionek, B. K., 2019. Data analysis of the ocular response analyzer for improved distinction and detection of glaucoma. J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 36, B71-B76.

Wang, K., Pierscionek, B. K., 2019. Biomechanics of the human lens and accommodative system: Functional relevance to physiological states. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 17, pp. 114-131.

Esfahlani, S. S., Butt, J., Shirvani, H., Mirzaee, I., 2019. The Fusion of Artificial Intelligence in Neuro-Rehabilitation Video Games. Journal of IEEE ACCESS, 7, pp. 102617-102627. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2926118

Esfahlani, S. S., 2019, Mixed Reality and Remote Sensing Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Fire and Smoke Detection. Journal of Industrial Information Integration, 15, pp. 42-49. doi: 10.1016/j.jii.2019.04.006

Kordzadeh, A., Esfahlani, S. S., 2019. Artificial Intelligence in the Prediction of Functional Maturation of Radiocephalic Arteriovenous Fistula. Annals of Vascular Diseases 12(1), pp. 44–49. doi: 10.3400/avd.oa.18-00129

Esfahlani, S. S., Shirvani, H., 2019. Video Game and Fuzzy Logic to Improve Amblyopia and Convergence Insufficiency. In: 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics (IEEE Xplore), pp. 179-185. doi: 10.1109/IECON.2019.8927143

Izsof, V., Minter, S., Kordzadeh, A., Esfahlani, S. S., 2019. Development of an Interactive Virtual Reality for Medical Skills Training Supervised by Artificial Neural Network. In: Proceedings of SAI Intelligent Systems Conference, IntelliSys 2019: Intelligent Systems and Applications (IEEE Xplore), pp. 473-482. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-29513-4_34

Read more about 2019.


Wang, K., Venetsanos, D. T., Wang, J., Pierscionek, B., 2018. Combined use of parallel-plate compression and Finite Element Modelling to analyse the mechanical properties of intact porcine lens. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, 18:1840013.

Laibe, J., Caffrey, A., Broutin, M., Guiglion, S., Pierscionek, B.K., 2018. Coil conversion to β-strand induced by dimerization. Proteins: structure, function and bioinformatics, 86, pp. 1221-1230.

Muresan, B., Esfahlani, S. S., 2018. Autonomous Flight and Real-time Tracking of Nano Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. In: Arai, K., Kapoor, S., Bhatia, R. (Eds.), 2018. Intelligent Computing: Proceedings of the 2018 Computing Conference, Volume 1 (New York: Springer), pp. 945-956. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-01174-1_73

Esfahlani, S. S., Cirstea, S., Sanaei, A., Cirstea, M., 2018. Fire Detection of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in a Mixed Reality-based System. In: Industrial Electronics Society, IECON2018 (IEEE Xplore), pp. 2757-2762. doi: 10.1109/IECON.2018.8592764

Esfahlani, S. S., Thompson, T., Parsa, A. D., Brown, I., Cirstea, S., 2018. ReHabgame: A Non-Immersive Virtual Reality Rehabilitation System with Applications in Neuroscience. Heliyon, 4(2), p.e00526. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00526

Esfahlani, S. S., Muresan, B., Sanaei, A., Wilson, G., 2018. Validity of the Kinect and Myo Armband in a Serious Game for Assessing Upper Limb Movement. Entertainment Computing. doi: 10.1016/j.entcom.2018.05.003

McKenna, M. A., Bonfield, M. C., Robinson, T., 2018. Levels of agreement in the measurements of carotid artery ultrasound across a regional vascular network. Ultrasound, 26(2) pp. 101-109. doi: 10.1177/1742271X17751255

Tipper, S., Tully, G., 2018. Current research in Nubian archaeology (New Jersey: Gorgias Press).

Read more about 2018.


Giovanzana, S., Evans, T., Pierscionek, B., 2017. Lens internal curvature effects on age-related eye model and lens paradox. Biomed Optics Express, 8, pp. 4827-4837.

Esfahlani, S. S., Cirstea, S., Sanaei, A., Wilson, G., 2017. An Adaptive Self-Organizing Fuzzy Logic Controller in a Serious Game for Motor Impairment Rehabilitation. In: International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE) (IEEE Xplore), pp. 1311-1318. doi: 10.1109/ISIE.2017.8001435

Esfahlani, S. S., Wilson, G., 2017. Development of Rehabilitation System (RehabGame) through Monte-Carlo tree Search Algorithm using kinect and Myo Sensor Interface. In: 2017 Computing Conference (IEEE Xplore), pp. 1021-1028. doi: 10.1109/SAI.2017.8252217

Read more about 2017.


Bahrami, M., Haidari, A., Pierscionek, B. K., 2016. Alteration in refractive index profile during accommodation based on mechanical modelling. Biomedical Optics Express, 7, pp. 99-110.

Wang, K., Venetsanos, D., Wang, J., Pierscionek, B. K., 2016. Gradient moduli lens models: how material properties and application of forces can affect deformation and distribution of stress. Scientific Reports, 6:31171. doi: 10.1038/srep31171

Esfahlani, S. S., Thompson, T., 2016. Intelligent Physiotherapy through Procedural Content Generation. AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment.

Read more about 2016.


Gómez-Correa, J. E., Balderas-Mata, S. E., Pierscionek, B. K., Chávez-Cerda, S., 2015. Composite Modified Luneberg model of human eye lens. Optics Letters, 40, pp. 3739-3742.

Bahrami, M., Hoshino, M., Pierscionek, B. K., Yagi, N., Regini, J., Uesugi, K., 2015. Refractive index degeneration in older lenses: a potential functional correlate to structural changes that underlie cataract formation. Experimental Eye Research, 140, pp. 19-27.

Pierscionek, B. K., Bahrami, M., Hoshino, M., Uesugi, K., Regini, J., Yagi, N., 2015. The eye lens: age-related trends and individual variations in refractive index and shape parameters. Oncotarget, 31, pp. 30532-30544.

Read more about 2015.


Robbins, D., 2014. An Introduction to EMG Signal Processing Using MatLab and Microsoft Excel. In: Naik, G. R. (Ed.), 2014. Applications, Challenges, and Advancements in Electromyography Signal Processing (Pennsylvania: IGI Global)

Robbins, D., Yoganathan, P., Goss-Sampson, M., 2014. The influence of whole body vibration on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 34(5), pp. 364-9.

Read more about 2014.


Robbins, D., Goss-Sampson, M. A., 2013. The influence of whole body vibration on the plantar flexors during heel raise exercise. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 23, pp. 614–618.


Robbins, D., Elwell, C., Jimenez, A., Goss-Sampson, M., 2012. Localised muscle tissue oxygenation during dynamic exercise with whole body vibration. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 11, pp. 346-351.


  1. On intraocular implants post-cataract surgery
  2. On robotic eye surgery
  3. On assessment of the diabetic foot
  4. Applications of Electromyography
  5. Applications of motion analysis
  6. Applications of signal processing, particularly on neurophysiological or vascular signals


  1. Optics and biomechanics of the eye
  2. Imaging technologies in ophthalmology
  3. Biomechanical or Physiological Assessment
  4. Osteological analysis of skeletal remains

Research students

  1. Any topic to do with the eye, diseases and ageing of the eye, as well as imaging and optical technologies
  2. Human Biomechanics and/or Physiology, particularly MSK, neurophysiology or vascular projects
  3. Signal processing of biological signals, particularly EMG and/or vascular signals

Contact us

For more information and to get involved, email [email protected]