Writtle University College and ARU have merged. Writtle’s full range of college, degree, postgraduate and short courses will still be delivered on the Writtle campus. See our guide to finding Writtle information on this site.

Dr Toby Carter

Associate Professor
Faculty of Science and Engineering
Life Sciences
Areas of Expertise:
Life sciences
Research Supervision:

Toby is Course Leader for Ecology and Conservation in the School of Life Sciences and teaches in the areas of Zoology, Ecology and Animal Behaviour. He is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and a University Teaching Fellow.

[email protected]


Toby graduated with a BSc and PhD in Zoology from the University of Aberdeen. After working as a research fellow at Marine Scotland Science in Aberdeen and the University of Southampton he took up a post as a Lecturer in Animal Behaviour and Ecology here at Anglia Ruskin University.

After a number of management roles, including Faculty roles related to Learning and Teaching, Toby is now Course Leader for Ecology and Conservation. He became a Principal Lecturer in 2008, an Associate Professor in 2020 and was made a University Teaching Fellow in 2011.

Toby is a member of both our Applied Ecology Research Group and Behavioural Ecology Research Group.

Research interests
  • Fish welfare
  • Human-animal interactions, especially in the context of fisheries
  • The use of data and technology to support Learning and Teaching
Areas of research supervision

Toby is currently supervising postgraduate research on the influence of honey bees on wild pollinators and the use of a team-based learning approach to promote student engagement.

Among the research projects Toby has supervised in the past are projects on fish welfare, bushmeat identification, analysis of fin damage in salmon, invasive crayfish in British rivers, penguin foraging in Antarctica and community ecology of hemiptera on grassland swards.


Teaching on a variety of modules in Animal and Environmental Biology including:

  • Quantitative Tools and Techniques for Biology
  • Population Ecology and Wildlife Management
  • Aquatic Biology and Conservation
  • Communication Skills for Conservation

Toby also runs a Ruskin Module on Data Storytelling called ‘Do Numbers Lie?’

  • University Teaching Fellow, Anglia Ruskin University
  • BSc Zoology (Aberdeen)
  • PhD Zoology (Aberdeen)
Memberships, editorial boards
  • Fellow, Linnean Society
  • Fellow, Higher Education Academy
  • Member, Mammal Society
  • Member, Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour
  • Vice President, Cambridge Natural History Society
  • Editor, Nature in Cambridgeshire
Selected recent publications

Arkwright, T., Malassis, R., Delfour, F., Carter, T., 2016. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) can spontaneously follow subtle human gestures, but not glances. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 29, 25366.

Jensen, A-L. M., Delfour, F., Carter, T., 2013. Anticipatory Behaviour in Captive Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): a preliminary study. Zoo Biology. 32(4), pp. 436-444.

Martins, C. I. M., Galhardo, L., Damsgård, B., Noble, C., Spedicato, M. T., Zupa, W., Beauchaud, M., Kulczykowska, E., Massabuau, J-C., Carter, T., Planellas, S. R. and Kristiansen, T., 2013. Behavioural indicators of farmed fish welfare. In van de Vis, H., Kiessling, A., Flik, G., Mackenzie, S. (eds.), 2013. Welfare of Farmed Fish in Present and Future Production Systems (Springer: London), pp. 20-45.

Martins, C. I. M., Galhardo, L., Damsgård, B., Noble, C., Spedicato, M. T., Zupa, W., Beauchaud, M., Kulczykowska, E., Massabuau, J-C., Carter, T., Planellas, S. R. and Kristiansen, T., 2012. Behavioural indicators of farmed fish welfare. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 38(1), pp. 17-41.