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Aaron Trinidade

Otolaryngology (ENT) Undergraduate Lead
Faculty of Health, Medicine and Social Care
School of Medicine
Research Supervision:

Mr Trinidade is a widely published and internationally fellowship-trained Consultant Ear, Nose & Throat Surgeon at Southend Hospital where he sub-specialises in chronic ear disease, hearing restoration and the management of vestibular disorders.

[email protected]

Visit Aaron's website


Mr Trinidade graduated from the University of the West Indies and has undertaken subspecialist training in Otology & Implantation at Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge and the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock, USA. He is a board member of the Prosper Ménière Society which focuses on research devoted to the inner ear and is also a member of the International Otology Outcomes Group.

Mr Trinidade has over 70 scientific peer-reviewed publications and is the author of chapters in surgical textbooks. His current research interests include mastoid obliteration techniques and persistent postural-perceptual dizziness.

He is a dedicated educator with a postgraduate diploma in medical education from the University of Dundee and has also published his own series of textbooks for medical students entitled Fast Track Surgery.

Research interests
  • The pathophysiology and management of persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD).
  • Obliteration techniques for the management of troublesome mastoid cavities.
  • Hybrid surgical techniques for the management of cholesteatoma.
  • Novel therapies in the management of vestibular migraine.

The ideal surgical management of cholesteatoma remains a contentious issue with new techniques being developed all the time. Some techniques, while effective in treating the cholesteatoma, result in chronic problematic sequalae centred around the creation of a mastoid cavity. Research into innovative hybrid techniques to give the benefit of open cavity techniques while preventing the sequalae, and to deal with already created troublesome cavities will help in better overall patient outcomes.

Vestibular migraine and PPPD remain difficult causes of chronic dizziness to manage. Research into predictors of their onset may lead to prevention and novel therapies can help current sufferers.

Areas of research supervision
  • Supervision of ENT-related research projects by medical students.
  • Supervision of ENT-related research projects by ENT trainees.

Mr Trinidade gives regular undergraduate ENT teaching and is involved in curriculum development at ARU School of Medicine where he is a Lecturer. He is also the lead co-ordinator of the ARU Postgraduate ENT Cadaveric Dissection Course series.

  • MBBS, The University of the West Indies
  • DO-HNS, The Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • PgDipMedEd, The University of Dundee
  • FRCS (ORL-HNS), The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh
Memberships, editorial boards
  • Member, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh
  • Member, ENT-UK
  • Board member, Prosper Ménière Society
  • Member, International Otology Outcomes Group
  • Reviewer for Clinical Otolaryngology, Annals of Surgery, Laryngoscope
Research grants, consultancy, knowledge exchange

Knowledge exchange in the form of research collaboration: Chief investigator on multi-centre international and regional research projects with cross-specialty relevance.

Vivek Raut Memorial Scholarship to Toronto General Hospital granted by the TWJ Foundation.

Selected recent publications

Journal articles

Trinidade, A., Harman, P., Stone, J., Staab, J. P., Goebel, J. A., 2021. Assessment of Potential Risk Factors for the Development of Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness: A Case-Control Pilot Study. Front Neurol., 11:601883. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2020.601883. PMID: 33551961; PMCID: PMC7859446

Trinidade, A., Goebel, J. A., 2018. Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness-A Systematic Review of the Literature for the Balance Specialist. Otol Neurotol., 39(10), pp. 1291-1303. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000002010. PMID: 30289841.

Abbas, Y., Smith, G., Trinidade, A., 2018. Audiologist-led screening of acoustic neuromas in patients with asymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss and/or unilateral tinnitus: our experience in 1126 patients. J Laryngol Otol., 132(9), pp. 786-789. doi: 10.1017/S0022215118001561. Epub 2018 Sep 10. PMID: 30198461

Trinidade, A., Cox, M. D., Hassaan, A., Rayburn, C., Dornhoffer, J. L., 2018. Does cochlear implant brand influence patient satisfaction? A survey of 102 cochlear implant users. Clin Otolaryngol., 43(3), pp. 956-961. doi: 10.1111/coa.13075. Epub 2018 Feb 22. PMID: 29380531

Trinidade, A., Page, J. C., Kennett, S. W., Cox, M. D., Dornhoffer, J. L., 2017. Simultaneous versus sequential bilateral cochlear implants in adults: Cost analysis in a US setting. Laryngoscope, 127(11), pp. 2615-2618. doi: 10.1002/lary.26673. Epub 2017 Jun 5. PMID: 28581125

Cox, M. D., Dunlap, Q. A., Trinidade, A., Dornhoffer, J. L., 2016. Long-term Outcomes After Secondary Mastoid Obliteration. Otol Neurotol., 37(9), pp. 1358-65. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000001187. PMID: 27576093

Trinidade, A., Skingsley, A., Yung, M. W., 2015. Mastoid obliteration surgery for cholesteatoma in 183 adult ears - a 5-year prospective cohort study: Our Experience. Clin Otolaryngol., 40(6), pp. 721-6. doi: 10.1111/coa.12444. PMID: 25891851

Trinidade, A., Philpott, C. M., 2015. Bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve palsy following tonsillectomy: a very rare and difficult complication of a common procedure. J Laryngol Otol., 129(4), pp. 392-4. doi: 10.1017/S0022215115000080. Epub 2015 Feb 20. PMID: 25697260

Trinidade, A., Skingsley, A., Yung, M. W., 2015. Pediatric cholesteatoma surgery using a single-staged canal wall down approach: results of a 5-year longitudinal study. Otol Neurotol., 36(1), pp. 82-5. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000000598. PMID: 25299830

Trinidade, A., Yung, M. W., 2014. The intra-operative incidence of Fallopian canal dehiscence during surgery for cholesteatoma: a prospective case-control study and review of the literature. Clin Otolaryngol., 39(3), pp. 138-44. doi: 10.1111/coa.12256. PMID: 24806083

Trinidade, A., Yung, M. W., 2014. Consultant-led, multidisciplinary balance clinic: process evaluation of a specialist model of care in a district general hospital. Clin Otolaryngol., 39(2), pp. 95-101. doi: 10.1111/coa.12236. PMID: 24612936

Trinidade, A., Kothari, P., Andreou, Z., Hewitt, R. J., O'Flynn, P., 2012. Follow-up in head and neck cancer: patients' perspective. Int J Health Care Qual Assur., 25(2), pp. 145-9. doi: 10.1108/09526861211198308. PMID: 22455179

Kothari, P., Trinidade, A., Hewitt, R. J. D., Singh, A., O'Flynn, P., 2010. The follow-up of patients with head and neck cancer: an analysis of 1,039 patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol., 268(8), pp. 1191-1200. doi: 10.1007/s00405-010-1461-2. Epub 2010 Dec 31. PMID: 21193920

Published books

Taylor, J. S., Trinidade, A., Ramachandran M., 2008. Fast Track Anatomy (Cheshire: PasTest). ISBN 1905635125

Trinidade, A., Ramachandran, M., 2006. Fast Track Surgery: General, Vascular, Urology (Cheshire: PasTest). ISBN 1904627854

Trinidade, A., Ramachandran, M., 2006. Fast Track Surgery: Trauma, Orthopaedics & The Sub-Specialities (Cheshire: PasTest). ISBN 1904627951

Ramachandran, M., Trinidade, A., 2006. Mnemonics in Surgery (Cheshire: PasTest). ISBN 1904627897

Book chapters

Trinidade, A., Tysome, J. R., 2016. Ototoxicity. In Tysome, J. R., Kanegoankar, R. G. (eds), 2016. Hearing: an Introduction & Practical Guide (Florida: CRC Press), pp. 143-147. ISBN: 1498708641

Contributor to Ramachandran M., Malone, A. (eds), 2005. Intercollegiate MRCS: An Aid to the VIVA Examination (Cheshire: PasTest). ISBN 1904627498

Recent presentations and conferences

Fulminant cervical spine metastasis and resulting quadriplegia following lateral temporal bone resection for auricular squamous cell carcinoma: a rare, aggressive and unexpected outcome. 32nd Politzer Society Meeting, Warsaw, 29 May - 1 June 2019.

A comparison of two different ear packing methods following tympanoplasty. 32nd Politzer Society Meeting, Warsaw, 29 May - 1 June 2019.

Necrotising otitis externa: service evaluation of a treatment pathway in an NHS institution and introduction of a new treatment protocol. 32nd Politzer Society Meeting, Warsaw, 29 May - 1 June 2019.

Cholesteatoma surgery: single-stage canal wall down approach. Results of a 5-year longitudinal study. 5th Antwerp BOT Course, Antwerp, 25 April 2018.

Cochlear implant brand: does it affect patient satisfaction? Arkansas Hearing Society Conference, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Little Rock, 30 July 2016.

Sequential second cochlear implantation: why do some patients refuse one despite evidence of benefit? Arkansas Hearing Society Conference, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Little Rock, 30 July 2016.

Long-term results of adult cholesteatoma surgery using canal-wall-down approach with primary obliteration: 5-year observational study. 118th AAO-HNS Meeting, Orlando, USA, 20-24 September 2014.

Long-term results of paediatric cholesteatoma surgery using canal-wall-down approach with primary obliteration: 5-year observational study. British-Scandinavian Otology Society Meeting, Windsor, 13-14 June 2014.

Smell dysfunction and the role of the specialist olfactory and gustatory disorders clinic. British Academic Conference of Otolaryngology, Glasgow, 4-6 July 2012.

Analysis of a head and neck cancer patient outpatient department: patient experience. BAHNO Meeting, London, 28 April 2011.