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Research highlights for May 2022

Published: 26 May 2022 at 15:04

Find out about research published by members of ARU's Vision and Eye Research Institute (VERI) in May 2022.

López-Sánchez et al. (1) analysed the impact of physical activity, BMI, sociodemographic and life-style factors on the risk of diabetes in Ghanaian adults, using the data of the WHO’s Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health.

The authors found that <600 MET-minutes/week of physical activity, obesity, female sex, age ≥60 years and education were significantly associated with diabetes. These risk factors should be taken into account when developing public health strategies to reduce diabetes in Ghana.

A retrospective cross-sectional study of RPGR subjects was performed by Buckley et al. (2), in order to explore the pattern and sensitivities of peripheral visual fields.

They demonstrated that the photopic sensitivities in the central and inferotemporal fields are highly correlated, and observed preservation of the inferotemporal peripheral field along with greater central temporal retinal sensitivity, that remain spared until the later disease stages.

These data may inform future research into studies that focus on the peripheral visual field, which is critical to navigational vision.

Andrews et al. (3) aimed to assess the performance of the modified-Esterman test (mET) as a rapid suprathreshold binocular quantification tool for the assessment of peripheral visual fields.

They found that the mET provided a speedy quantitative measure of the peripheral visual field loss, which can be used in clinical trials to monitor longitudinal assessment of peripheral visual function.

The Global Burden of Disease 2019 results were used by Haagsma et al. (4) to compare estimates on injury mortality and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) across Europe, examine changes in injury DALY rates over a 20-year period, and assess inequalities in injury mortality and DALY rates.

The authors found that injury mortality and DALY rates were highest in Eastern Europe and lowest in Western Europe. They also found that the injury DALY rate ratio of highest- and lowest-ranking countries declined from 2005, indicating declining inequalities in injuries between countries.

Trott et al. (5) aimed to aggregate changes in screen time and report on variables relating to screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Their systematic review found that total screen time increased the most in primary aged children (1.4 hours/day), followed by adults over 18 (1 hour/day), adolescents (0.9 hours/day) and young children (0.6 hours/day). Increases in leisure screen time ranged from 0.5 hours/day to 1.0 hour/day in the groups examined.

Correlates associated with increases in screen time included adverse dietary behaviours, sleep, mental health, parental health, and eye health.

A systematic review was undertaken by Trott et al. (6) to examine the relationship between vitamin D and sight threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) and non-sight threatening diabetic retinopathy (NSTDR).

The authors found that vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with STDR, with vitamin D deficiency increasing the odds of STDR by a magnitude of 1.8. Vitamin D deficiency was not found to be associated with NSTDR risk. Circulating 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with both STDR and NSTDR.


1. López-Sánchez, G. F., Hernandez, M. R. V., Casas, P. L., Zauder, R., Jastrzebska, J., Skalska, M., Radziminski, L., Jastrzebski, Z., Pardhan, S., 2022. Impact of physical activity, BMI and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on the risk of diabetes in 9,511 Ghanaian adults. Sport TK, 11. doi: 10.6018/sportk.518091

2. Buckley, T. M. W., Josan, A. S., Taylor, L. J., Jolly, J. K., Cehajic-Kapetanovic, J., MacLaren, R. E., 2022. Characterizing Visual Fields in RPGR Related Retinitis Pigmentosa Using Octopus Static-Automated Perimetry. Translational Vision Science & Technology, 11(5), pp. 15. doi: 10.1167/tvst.11.5.15

3. Andrews C. D., Sheldon A. A., Bridge H., Downes S. M., MacLaren R. E., Jolly J. K., 2022. Rapid Quantification of the Binocular Visual Field for Clinical Trials: Performance of a Modified Esterman Supra-Threshold Test Implemented with the Open Perimetry Interface. Clinical Ophthalmology, 16, pp. 1513-1523. doi: 10.2147/OPTH.S352004

4. Haagsma, J. A., Charalampous, P., Ariani, F., Gallay, A., Moesgaard Iburg, K., Nena, E., et al. (Pardhan, S.), 2022. The burden of injury in Central, Eastern, and Western European sub-region: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease 2019 Study. Archives of Public Health, 80(1), pp. 142. doi: 10.1186/s13690-022-00891-6

5. Trott, M., Driscoll, R., Irlado, E., Pardhan, S., 2022. Changes and correlates of screen time in adults and children during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. eClinicalMedicine, 48, pp. 101452. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101452

6. Trott, M., Driscoll, R., Iraldo, E., Pardhan, S., 2022. Associations between vitamin D status and sight threatening and non-sight threatening diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. doi: 10.1007/s40200-022-01059-3